- ammonium carbonate
- carbonate of ammonia
- baking ammonia
- bicarbonate of ammonia
- ammonium bicarbonate
- powdered baking ammonia
- salt of hartshorn
About Baker's ammonia
Wikipedia Article About Baker's ammonia on Wikipedia
Earlier version of baking powder, used in the food industry for meal confectionery production as a chemical leavening agent instead of ammonium carbonate of food quality.
Ammonium carbonate. The commercial salt was formerly known as sal-volatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, etc., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulfate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers. The crude product is refined by sublimation, when it is obtained as a white fibrous mass, which consists of a mixture of hydrogen ammonium carbonate, NH4•HCO3, and ammonium carbamate, NH2COONH4, in molecular proportions; on account of its possessing this constitution it is sometimes called ammonium sesquicarbonate. It possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol the carbamate is dissolved and a residue of ammonium bicarbonate is left; a similar decomposition taking place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air. Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate converts it into normal ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3, which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30 °C. This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and passes back to ammonium bicarbonate.
Ammonium carbonate is used when crushed as a smelling salt. It can be crushed when needed in order to revive someone that has fainted. It is also known as "baker's ammonia" and was a forerunner to the more modern leavening agents baking soda and baking powder.